Using the Domain Objects Persistence Pattern in .NET

Author: Iqbal Khan


Domain objects form the backbone of any application. They capture the core data model from the database and also the business rules that apply to this data. It is very typical for most subsystems of an application to rely on these common domain objects. This means that the closer the domain objects map to the data model in the database, the easier it is for the application developers to understand and use them because they mimic real-life "entities" and "relationships" as represented in the database.

If domain objects are not separated from the rest of the application, we end up with duplication of code everywhere. Similarly, if domain objects are not separated from the persistence code, we face situations where any subsystem using the domain objects also knows and depends on the persistence objects. And, any change in persistence objects affects the entire application, hence a bad design.


One way to achieve the above mentioned goals is to separate the domain objects into a separate subsystem and let the entire application use them wherever it needs domain data. Additionally, we should separate domain objects from the persistence code. This double-decoupling allows us on one hand to avoid code duplication and on the other to hide the persistence details from the domain objects and make it more flexible in case it needs to change. The domain objects and the rest of the application is totally unaffected whether the data is coming from a relational database or any other source (e.g. XML, flat files, or Active Directory/LDAP).

In separating the persistence logic from domain objects, we ensure that the domain objects have no dependency on the persistence code. This allows the domain objects to become available in environments where we don't even want to expose our persistence code.

Sample Code

In this sample, we will look at a Customer object from Northwind database mapped to the "Customers" table in the database.

public class Customer {
    // Private data members
    String  _CustomerID;
    String  _companyName;
    String  _contactName;
    String  _contactTitle;

    public Customer () { }

    // Properties for Customer object
    public String CustomerId {
        get { return _customerId; } set { _customerId = value; }

    public String CompanyName {
        get { return _companyName; } set { _companyName = value; }

    public String ContactName {
        get { return _contactName; } set { _contactName = value; }

    public String ContactTitle {
        get { return _contactTitle; } set { _contactTitle = value; }

public interface ICustomerFactory  {
    // Standard transactional methods for single-row operations
    void Load (Customer cust);
    void Insert (Customer cust);
    void Update (Customer cust);
    void Delete (Customer cust);

    // Query method to return a collection
    ArrayList FindCustomersByState (String state);


public class CustomerFactory : ICustomerFactory {
    // Standard transactional methods for single-row operations
    void Load (Customer cust) { /* Implement here */ }
    void Insert (Customer cust) { /* Implement here */ }
    void Update (Customer cust) { /* Implement here */ }
    void Delete (Customer cust) { /* Implement here */ }

    // Query method to return a collection
    ArrayList FindCustomersByState (String state) { /* Implement here */ }

Below is an example of how a client application will use this code.

public class NorthwindApp {
    static void Main (string[] args) {
        Customer cust = new Customer ();
        CustomerFactory custFactory = new CustomerFactory ();

        // Let's load a customer from Northwind database.
        cust.CustomerId = "ALFKI";
        custFactory.load (cust);

        // Pass on the Customer object
        FooBar (cust);

        // custList is a collection of Customer objects 
        ArrayList custList = custFactory.FindCustomersByState ("CA");

As you can see above, the "load" method loads the Customer object from the database based on the CustomerId. Once the Customer is loaded, then it can be passed on to any subsystem in the application without exposing the persistence code. Similarly, if you get an ArrayList of Customer objects, you can pass on the ArrayList which has no persistence code dependency.


Using the Domain Objects Persistence pattern, we have extracted the persistence code out of the Customer object. This has made Customer object more object-oriented and simpler to understand because its object model is closer to the data model in the database. And, finally, we have enabled the Customer object to be passed around to different parts of the application (or even to distributed applications through .NET Remoting) without exposing its persistence code.

Author:>Iqbal Khan works for Alachisoft , a leading software company providing .NET and Java distributed caching, O/R Mapping and SharePoint Storage Optimization solutions. You can reach him at

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